This unique formula combines the performance enhancing effects of
creatine monohydrate and pyruvate to boost energy and endurance.
Pyruvate stimulates glucose extraction from blood into muscle during
exercise and at rest, priming muscle with a carbohydrate content
essential for greater endurance. In clinical studies, pyruvate
reduced gain in body fat without reducing muscle protein, an
important factor in increasing lean muscle mass. Supplementation with
creatine pyruvate provides complementary nutritional support for
maximizing muscular performance and endurance in high intensity
THE ERGOGENIC PROPERTIES OF CREATINE MONOHYDRATE.
Creatine monohydrate provides safe nutritional support for
athletes seeking peak performance in short-duration, high-intensity
efforts. By supporting the body’s natural ability to regenerate the
primary energy immediately available to working muscle, creatine
monohydrate has the potential to increase optimal work output in
activities such as weight-lifting and sprinting.*
THE ROLE OF ATP AND CREATINE PHOSPHATE DURING HIGH-INTENSITY
The working muscles used during short-term, high intensity
exercise demand tremendous, immediate energy. The energy consumed by
muscles is primarily adenosine triphosphate (ATP). During high
intensity exercise, the demand in working muscles for ATP increases
several hundredfold as compared to muscles at rest. ATP is stored
only in limited supplies in muscle cells, however; maintaining peak
performance requires these levels to be replenished constantly.*
Creatine phosphate acts as the primary resupplier of ATP levels
for high intensity efforts lasting up to and around 25 seconds. Up to
95% of the body’s total creatine content is stored in skeletal
muscle, 60% of which is stored in the form of creatine phosphate.
During muscle contractions ATP is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate
(ADP). Creatine phosphate regenerates ATP levels by breaking down and
lending the phosphate to the ADP. As the muscle recovers, it is
converted back into creatine phosphate.1 Due to the important role
creatine plays in recharging ATP levels, researchers and athletes are
focusing on how they can raise levels of creatine in the body.*
Neither creatine phosphate nor ATP can be directly supplemented in
the diet. Creatine phosphate levels will increase, however, with a
rise in total creatine levels. Creatine is manufactured in the body
by arginine, glycine and methionine. In the diet it is found in meat,
especially red meat, and also in small amounts from plants. A mixed
diet supplies an average of 1 gram per day, while a vegetarian diet
relies almost exclusively on the body’s ability to manufacture
creatine.2 3 Higher levels of creatine can be derived from creatine
monohydrate, a supplemental form of creatine which has been shown to
raise total plasma levels of creatine.*
A clinical study of 17 subjects demonstrated that creatine
monohydrate supplementation increased the total creatine pool in
muscle. The subjects were administered 5 g of creatine monohydrate
four or six times a day for 2 or more days. Supplementation resulted
in a significant increase in the total creatine content of the
quadriceps femoris muscle. The average increase in the total creatine
levels was from 126.8 to 148.6 mmol/kg and creatine phosphate
increased from 84.2 to 90.6 mmol/kg. The increase was the most
substantial in subjects with a low initial total creatine content,
increasing their levels to the upper level of the normal range.*4
THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL CREATINE ON INTENSE EXERCISE.
It has been theorized that a limited supply of ATP is one of the
major limiting factors in maintaining peak muscle performance.
Clinical studies have demonstrated that increasing total creatine
pools through supplementation can increase maximum performance for
short-duration, high-impact efforts.*
Twelve subjects performed 5 bouts of 30 voluntary knee extensions
with 1 minute recovery periods between each bout. Subjects were
tested for peak muscle torque production before and after treatment
with either placebo or creatine. The treatment period lasted 5 days
and consisted of a placebo 4 times a day or 5 grams of creatine 4
times a day plus 1 gram of glucose a day. Subjects who were
administered the placebo demonstrated no difference in performance.
In the creatine group, however, peak muscle torque production
increased in all subjects during the final 10 contractions of
exercise in bout 1, throughout the entirety of exercise in bouts 2, 3
and 4, and during contractions 11-20 of bout 5 after supplementation.
Researchers concluded that creatine supplementation increased the
level of peak torque production during repeated bouts of maximal
voluntary muscle contraction.*5
In a similar study, researchers divided sixteen subjects into two
groups receiving either 20 g per day creatine monohydrate, or placebo
(glucose), for a six day treatment period. Before and after the
treatment period, subjects performed high-intensity exercise
consisting of 10 six-second bouts on a cycle ergometer with a 30
second recovery period In between attempting to maintain a pedaling
frequency of 140 revolutions per minute. There was no difference in
exercise output between the two groups before the treatment period.
After treatment, however, the group supplementing with creatine
monohydrate displayed an easier time maintaining the target speed
towards the end of each exercise bout than the placebo group.*6
A further study utilizing the same treatment protocol of 20 g
creatine monohydrate or placebo for six days confirmed the above
results. In this study, subjects performed 5 standardized 6 second
bouts of high intensity exercise, and after a 40 second rest were
tested for their ability to sustain high power output during a 10
second exercise period. Subjects who had been administered creatine
monohydrate demonstrated a significant improvement in exercise
SIGNIFICANCE FOR ATHLETES
In order to maintain peak performance in short-term,
high-intensity exercises such as weight-lifting and sprinting, the
body must maintain its stores of ATP, energy immediately available to
working muscle. Creatine monohydrate has been shown to increase total
levels of creatine in muscle stores, including creatinine phosphate,
which recharges the continually rapidly diminishing levels of ATP.
This safe nutritional supplement has been shown to increase work
outputs during repeated bouts of high-impact exercise. It has the
potential to increase the intensity at which athletes regularly train
and, therefore, to increase these individuals’ muscle strength and
As a nutritional supplement, in addition to a healthy,
well-balanced diet, 5-20 grams per day, in divided servings of 5
* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure
or prevent any disease.
1 Hultman E, Bergstrom J, and McLennon-Anderson N. Breakdown and
resynthesis of phophorylcreatine and adenosine-triphosphate in
connection with muscular work in man. Scan J Clin Lab Invest 1967;
2 Hoogwerf BJ, Laine DC, and Greene E. Urine C-peptide and
creatinine (Jaffe method) excretion in healthy young adults on varied
diets: sustained effects of vared carbohydrate, protein and meat
content. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:350-60.
3 Delanghe J, De Slypere J-P, Buyzere M, et al. Normal reference
values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in
vegetarians. Clin Chem 1989; 35:1802-3.
4 Harris RC, Soderlund K, and Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in
resting and exercised muscle on normal subjects by creatine
supplementation. Clinical Science 1992; 83: 367-74.
5 Greenhaff PL, et al. Influence or oral creatine supplementation.
Clinical Science 1993; 84: 565-71.
6 Balson PD, Ekblom G, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine
supplementation and dynamic hig h-intensity intermittent exercise.
Scan J Med Sci Sports 1993; 3: 143-9.
7 Soderlund K, Balsom PD, Ekblom B. Creatine supplementation and
high-intensity exercise: influence on performance and muscle
metabolism. Clin Sci 1994; 87